e-PS-R is a blended learning (online and face-to-face) adaptation of Practice Self-Regulation (PS-R), an empirically-based, trauma-informed sexual health intervention, designed for teens impacted by adverse childhood experiences. The model is based on affect regulation—the ability to manage emotions without causing harm to self or others. It addresses many underlying issues that put youth who have experienced trauma at increased risk for teen pregnancy, STI’s, HIV, and sexual harm.
This blended learning adaption allows the intervention to be implemented across a broad range of venues in order to reach more vulnerable youth in under-resourced and rural areas across the US. The original clinical program has been adapted for facilitation by non-clinically trained professionals, such as parole offers or case managers.
e-PS-R emphasizes thoughts, feelings, and physiological reactions—internal processes that teens can learn to mindfully observe as they experience external stimuli (arousal, not necessarily sexual). These processes influence decision-making, which in turn influences behavior and outcomes. e-PS-R provides a safe space for youth and facilitators to address the impact of trauma, and explore how values, beliefs, choices, and personal goals affect a person’s sexual health and well-being.
e-PS-R has two main components:
- 8 online sessions that youth complete on their own over 8 weeks
- Four meetings with a trained helper who is there to support youth throughout the program.
There is also a blended learning facilitator training which consists of 8 hours of online learning and 1.5 days of in-person training. e-PS-R was developed by Joann Schladale and Sentient Research.
*A great deal of research is contained in the e-PS-R program without a structure to cite all of the evidence about what works to improve lives. Information from all of these books and articles is included throughout the program and we want to make sure to give full credit to all of these important contributions.
Bauemeister, R. F. & Vohs, K.D. (2004). Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, andAapplications. New York: The Guilford Press.
Brier, J. & Scott, C. (2006). Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Burton, J., Rasmussen, L., Bradshaw, J., Christopherson, B., & Huke, S. (1998). Treating Children with Sexually Abusive Behavior Problems. New York: Haworth Press.
Cohen, J., Mannarino, A.P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating Trauma and Traumatic Grief in Children and Adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford.
Cook, A., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (2003). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. White paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force. Nctsn.org
Duncan, B., Miller, S., Wampold, B., & Hubble, M. (Second Edition). (2010). The Heart and Soul of Change, Delivering What Works in Therapy. American Psychological Association.
Ford, J., Chapman, J., Hawke, J., & Albert, D. (2007). Trauma among youth in the juvenile justice system: Critical issues and new directions. National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Research and Program Brief. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from http://www.ncmhjj.com.
Jensen, F. & Nutt, A. (2015). The Teenage Brain. New York: Harper Collins.
Kinniburg, K. M. & Blaustein, M. E. (2005). Attachment, self-regulation, & competency: a comprehensive framework for intervention with complexly traumatized youth. Brookline, MA: www.traumacenter. org
Miller, S. & Rollnick, S. (2013). Motivational Interviewing. New York: The Guildford Press.
Positive Images (4th Edition). Copyright 2013, by the Center for Sex Education.
Rasmussen, L. A. (1999). The Trauma Outcome Process: An integrated model for clinical practice with children with sexually abusive behavior problems. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 8(4), 3-33.
Ryan, G. (2005). Preventing violence and trauma in the next generation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1, 1–10.
Schladale, J. (2010). The T.O.P.* Workbook for Sexual Health. Freeport, ME: Resources for Resolving Violence, Inc.
Schladale, J. (2002). The T.O.P.* Workbook for Taming Violence and Sexual Aggression. Freeport, ME: Resources for Resolving Violence, Inc.
Schladale, J. & Langan, T. (2012). Stop It! A Practical Guide for Youth Violence Prevention. Freeport, ME: Resources for Resolving Violence, Inc.
Schore, A. (2003). Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Southwick, S. & Charney, D. (2012). Resilience: The Science of Mastering Life’s Greatest Challenges. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stien, P. & Kendall, J. (2004). Psychological Trauma and the Developing Brain. New York: The Haworth Press.
Steinberg, L. (2014) Age of Opportunity: The New Science of Adolescence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Van der Kolk, B. (2014) The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York: Viking.